Every DAy 43 Children

ARE DIAGNOSED WITH CANCER!

Source: CureSearch

Brain Cancer

Astrocytomas

Astrocytomas are the most common type of childhood glioma, a type of brain tumor. Like all gliomas, astrocytomas consist of glial cells, which form the connective tissue of the brain. Astrocytomas can occur in both the brain and spine; but most often occur in the cerebellum (the part of the brain that coordinates movement and balance), optic nerve and in the brainstem. Anaplastic astrocytomas are a more aggressive type of astrocytoma.

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT)

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor that commonly starts in the kidneys, the brain and spinal cord or other soft tissues of the body. While AT/RT can occur in adults and older children, it usually occurs in children aged three years and younger. About half of these tumors occur in the cerebellum (the part of the brain that controls movement and balance) or the brain stem (the part of the brain that controls breathing, heart rate and other vital life functions).

Brain Stem Glioma

Brain stem glioma is a type of brain tumor that is found on the brainstem, the part of the brain that controls vital functions like blood pressure and breathing. While this tumor type originates on the brainstem, it can also spread to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Choroid plexus tumors (CPT)

Choroid plexus tumors (CPT) are rare tumors that begin in the ventricles of brain. Often, CPTs can block the flow of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles. Choroid plexus tumors can be benign or malignant. Subtypes of CPTs include: choroid plexus papilloma (CPP), atypical choroid plexus papilloma and choroid plexus carcinoma.

Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)

Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) is a rare tumor of the brainstem that occurs almost exclusively in children. The tumor appears in the delicate area of the brainstem, called the pons, which control critical body functions like breathing and blood pressure. The tumors infiltrate healthy brain tissue, causing severe symptoms.

Ependymoma

Ganglioglioma are generally classified as low-grade tumors of the brain; however gangliogliomas can also be anaplastic (high-grade) and also occur in the spinal cord. In the brain, gangliogliomas most often occur in the temporal lobes.

Germ Cell Tumors

Germ cell tumors are benign or malignant tumors that can arise in the testes of boys, ovaries of girls, and in “extra-gondal” sites (such as the brain). Benign tumors (mature teratomas) are treated with surgery alone. Malignant germ cell tumors are also treated with chemotherapy, and sometimes radiation therapy.

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant tumor that arises from the glial cells, the brain’s support tissue. GBM tumors are grade IV tumors, which means they are aggressive and can spread to healthy brain tissue. Certain genetic diseases including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Li-Fraumeni syndrome and tuberous sclerosis are sometimes the reason why GBMs occur.

Gliofibroma

Gliofibroma is a rare variant of a glial-fibrous tumor that is more frequently diagnosed in children than in adults. This tumor type most often appears along the neuroaxis of the brain, which is the axis that runs through the brain and the spinal cord.

Glioma

A glioma is a specific type of central nervous system tumor that arises from glial cells, the type of cell that makes up the connective tissue of the brain. Gliomas are classified by cell type, grade and location. The most common types of gliomas are ependymomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, brainstem gliomas and optic nerve gliomas.

Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastoma is the most common type of pediatric brain tumor. The tumor most often originates in the cerebellum or the posterior fossa (back of the brain). Like other brain tumors, medulloblastoma spread through the cerebrospinal fluid and can metastasize to other locations in the brain and spinal cord.

Oligondendroglial-like Leptomeningeal Tumors

Oligondendroglial-like Leptomeningeal tumors are extremely rare glioma brain tumors. It causes small masses to form throughout the cerebellum as well as other parts of the brain and spine.

Optic Nerve Glioma

An optic nerve glioma is a brain tumor that arises in or around the optic nerve. The optic nerve connects the brain to the eye, so as the tumor grows it can press on the optic nerve and worsen vision.

Primitive Myxoid Mesenchymal Tumor of Infancy (PMMTI)

Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy (PMMTI) is an extremely rare soft tissue tumor. PMMTI has only been reported a handful of times and occurs in very early infancy (under 6 months old).

Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNET)

Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) is a type of central nervous system tumor that primarily occurs in the cerebrum, the largest part of the brain that includes the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, hippcampus, basal ganglia and olfactory bulb. PNETs may spread to other parts of the brain and spinal cord.

Leukemia

About

Childhood leukemia is a cancer that starts in the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. Leukemia is most often found in the white blood cells, but  it can develop in other blood cell types. It is the most common form of childhood cancer and there are several types and sub-types.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is cancer of the white blood cells, the cells that help fight infection. ALL is the most common form of childhood leukemia.

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

Childhood acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid cells that form white blood cells, red blood cells or platelets. AML is the second most common form of childhood leukemia.

Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare type of leukemia that begins from the myeloid cells. It is neither acute (fast-growing) or chronic (slow-growing) and most often occurs in young children (under age 4).

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a term that refers to cancers that start in the body’s lymphatic system, which includes lymph nodes/glands, thymus, spleen, tonsils, adenoids and bone marrow. While other types of cancer can spread to the lymphatic system; lymphoma always begins within the lymphatic system.

Burkitt's Lymphoma

Burkitt’s Lymphoma is the fastest-growing type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It causes the cells in the lymphatic system to abnormally grow, eventually causing tumors. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system and includes the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow and lymphocytes, a specific type of white blood cell. Tumors are often found in the abdomen, live, spleen, jaw and other organs.

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of lymphoma defined by the presence of a specific type of cancerous cell called Reed-Sternberg cells. Like all lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma originates in the lymphatic system.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma causes abnormal growth of specific types of lymphocytes, a kind of white blood cell that collects in the lymph nodes. Similar growth also occurs in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, children with lymphoma do not have bone marrow involvement (unlike children with leukemia who have significant involvement).

Solid and Bone Cancers

Solid cancers can occur in several places in the body including the bones, organs, and muscles. Solid cancers or tumors do not contain any liquid or cysts. There are two major types of solid tumors: sarcomas and carcinomas. Neuroblastoma is also considered a solid cancer.

Aveolar Soft Part Sarcoma

Alveolar soft part sarcoma is an extremely rare type of soft-tissue sarcoma. It is primarily found in children and young adults and typically starts in the connective tissue of the legs. It can migrate into other parts of the body, including the lungs and the brain.

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is a congenital growth disorder that cause large body size, large organs and other symptoms. It can increase a child’s risk of certain childhood cancers including Wilms’ tumor and hepatoblastoma.

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSCRCT)

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSCRCT) is a rare malignant cancer found in the soft tissue. It can occur anywhere in the soft tissue of the body, but most often occurs in the abdomen.

Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing’s sarcoma is a cancerous bone tumor that typically originates in the long bones of the arms and legs, the pelvis or the chest. While it is typically a bone tumor, Ewing’s sarcoma can develop in the soft tissue surrounding the bones as well. It is often diagnosed during puberty, when the bones of the body are rapidly growing.

Germ Cell Tumors

Germ cell tumors are benign or malignant tumors that can arise in the testes of boys, ovaries of girls, and in “extra-gondal” sites (such as the brain). Benign tumors (mature teratomas) are treated with surgery alone. Malignant germ cell tumors are also treated with chemotherapy, and sometimes radiation therapy.

Hepatoblastoma

Hepatoblastoma is a rare tumor that originates in the cells of the liver. It typically begins in the right lobe of the liver. Hepablastoma cells can also spread to other areas of the body, most commonly the lungs.

Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is a type of childhood cancer that most commonly originates in the adrenal glands, but can also develop in the nerve tissues in the neck, chest, abdomen or pelvis. It is the most common extracranial solid tumor cancer in childhood and the most common cancer infancy. Neuroblastoma is divided into three risk categories: low, intermediate and high risk.

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of childhood bone cancer. It typically develops from osteoblasts, the cells that make growing bone. It most commonly diagnosed in adolescents who are having a growth spurt. Osteosarcoma is more common in boys than in girls.

Other Spinal Cord Tumors

Spinal cord tumors can be low-grade, which tend to grow more slowly, or high-grade with faster growth rates and more commonly spread into normal tissue. There are several rare types and sub-types of pediatric spinal cord tumors including oligodendroglioma, glioblastoma multiforme, astrocytoma, ependymoma and others.

Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma is a type of cancer that starts in the retina, which is the very back part of the eye. It is the most common type of eye cancer in children.

Rhabdoid Tumor

Rhabdoid tumor is a rare tumor that commonly starts in the kidneys, but can also begin in the liver or other soft tissues of the body. It can also begin in the brain, where it is known as AT/RT. The disease can spread to other parts of the body.  Rhabdoid tumors are most often diagnosed in infants and toddlers.

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a cancer that develops from the cells that normally develop into skeletal muscles. RMS commonly occurs in the head and neck, urinary and reproductive organs, arms and legs or chest, and abdomen. There are several types of RMS including: embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma and undifferentiated sarcoma.

Spinal Cord Tumor - Astrocytoma

Astrocytoma are the most common type of childhood glioma, a type of central nervous tumor Like all gliomas, astrocytomas consist of glial cells, which form the connective tissue of the brain. Astrocytomas can occur in both the brain and spine; but most often occur in the cerebellum (the part of the brain that coordinates movement and balance), optic nerve and in the brainstem.  Astrocytomas can be benign or malignant.

Spinal Cord Tumor - Ependymoma

Ependymoma is the third most common type of childhood glioma, a type of brain and spine tumor. Scientists believe ependymoma tumors develop from the ependymal cells, the cells that line the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces in the brain) and the central canal of the spinal cord. Ependymomas are graded on a sale of I to III and include several subtypes, such as myxopapillary ependymomas, subependymoma, regular ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma and other variants.

Synovial Sarcoma

Synovial sarcoma is a tumor of the soft tissues that usually occurs around the joints. The most common location of origin is the thigh near the knee; however synovial sarcoma can occur near any other joint in the body.

Thyroid Cancer

Childhood thyroid cancer it is most common in older children and adolescents. There are two main types of childhood thyroid cancer including differentiated thyroid cancer (which includes papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer) and medullary thyroid cancer.

Kidney Cancers

Clear Cell Carcinoma

Clear cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer. This type of kidney cancer is extremely rare in children, accounting for approximately 2 percent of childhood kidney cancers.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that is most commonly found in adults, although it can occur in children.

Wilms' Tumor

Wilms’ tumor is the most common form of childhood kidney cancer. It most often occurs in one kidney; although it can be found in both kidneys at the same time.